Muscle Group

Man on exercise bike

The Muscle Group within the Sport, Health and Exercise Science Research Unit is lead by Professor Julien Baker and has the specific brief of examining the mechanical and pharmacological aspects of strength and power.

Their earlier work has identified serious errors associated with the mechanical measurement of power using the Monark cycle ergometer and has since challenged the traditional paradigm emphasising the need for a new and more accurate approach in the mechanical assessment of power. These findings will add much to the accuracy and precision of future research related to the cycling human.

The influence of the work conducted by Professor Baker and his team which identified the need to account for fat-free weight and the significant involvement of the arms in the cycling ergometric assessment of power, work output and efficiency has been substantial.


Group Achievements


Some of the more notable achievements awarded to the Muscle Group include:

Professor Julien Baker

  • Member of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) Elite High Performance Research Advisory Group.
  • Research Physiologist for British Karate team and British Association of Sport and Exercise Science (BASES) Physical Activity of Health Division, Research Representative.
  • Associate Editor of Journal of Exercise Physiology and Editorial Board member of Research in Sports Medicine
  • Grant reviewer for the NHS, Hong Kong Research Institute, Welsh Office for Research and Development and the Medical Research Council.


Dr Kathryn Franklin

  • Keynote presentations at several conferences (The Engineering of Sport)
  • Reviewer for peer reviewed journals (Biomechanics and Sports Engineering)
  • Project consultant that resulted in new hydrostatic weighting system calibration and validation being commissioned and used for research.
  • Technical advisor for commercial companies and governing bodies for sport in relation to sports ergonomics.


Dr Rae Gordon

  • Keynote presentations at several conferences (The Engineering of Sport).
  • Reviewer for the journal Sport Engineering.
  • Appeared on BBC Wales News promoting research on a tennis serving machine.
  • Research published in the ANSYS (finite element software) magazine.


Dr Michael Graham

  • Chairman of BASES Sport & Performance Division
  • Reviewer for International Journals
  • Keynote presentations, most recent: “Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs” at Liverpool John Moores University
  • Clinical Physiologist for Welsh Rugby Union & British Kyokoshinkai Karate Team.


Mr Ian Jeffreys

  • Editor of Journal of Strength and Conditioning
  • National Strength and Conditioning Association High School Professional of the Year (2006)
  • Editorial board for SportEx Dynamics
  • Presentation to the NSCA Sport Specific Conference (San Antonio TX, January 2007).