Research Outputs | Professor Richard Mullen

1. Mullen, R. and Hardy, L. (2010). Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 32: 275-297

Collaboration between Mullen and Hardy of Bangor University. In terms of originality, the manuscript is a multi-study paper that was the first to demonstrate the superiority of holistic process goals over part process goals for skilled but anxious performers.


2. Mullen, R., Faull, A., Jones, E.S. and Kingston, K. (2012). Attentional focus and performance anxiety: Effects on simulated race driving performance and heart rate variability.
Frontiers in Psychology Published: 19th October 2012. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00426

Collaboration between Mullen and colleagues at the University of Worcester and Cardiff Metropolitan University. The paper was the first to examine heart rate variability responses to different attentional foci and the impact of the different foci upon motor learning and performance under stress.


Pain, M., Harwood, C. and Mullen, R. Improving the performance environment of a soccer team during a competitive season: An exploratory action research study. The Sport Psychologist 26: 390-411.

Collaboration between Mullen and colleagues at Loughborough University. A unique contribution to the literature as it describes an intervention implemented over the course of an entire season using an action research framework. The study was the first to demonstrate that action research can be used to facilitate systematic reflection in a soccer team, which can improve team functioning over the course of a competitive season.


Mullen, R., Lane, A. and Hanton, S. (2009). Anxiety symptom interpretation in high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious, and repressor sport performers.
Anxiety, Stress and Coping 22: 91-100. DOI: 10.1080/10615800802203769

Collaboration between Mullen and colleagues at Cardiff Metropolitan University. This study was the first to examine the relationship between anxiety symptom interpretation and the full range of defensive coping styles.